Friedrich Engels


* 28th November 1820 in (Wuppertal-) Barmen, † 5th August 1895 in London

28th November 1820
born as a son of the cotton manufacturer Friedrich Engels and his wife Elisabeth, née. van Haar, in Barmen; he was the oldest of nine children.

October 1834
after the attendance of the town school in Barmen he changed to secondary school in Elberfeld, which he then left in September 1837, a year before completing his schooling at the urging of his father in order to work in the family-owned company.

From July 1838 to March 1841
Engels completed a commercial apprenticeship under wholesaler Heinrich Leupold (Bremen).
From 1839 onwards, he published journalistic articles under the pseudonym Friedrich Oswald (see for example Letters from Wuppertal).
He also had contact with the circle Young Germany.

From September 1841 to August 1842
he performed his military service in Berlin. He also attended lectures at the Humboldt University and connected to Young Hegelians.

16th November 1842
Engels had his first encounter with Karl Marx in the editing office of the newspaper Rhenish Newspaper in Cologne.

From 1842 to 1844
he continued his commercial apprenticeship in the cotton mill Ermen & Engels in Manchester. He had to face the dark sides of the Manchester-Capitalism.
Engels processed his impressions as well as his political and sociological analyses in the Condition of the Working Class in England published 1845.
As early as 1844, Engels had outlined initial thoughts on the political economy in his paper entitled Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy.

1844
after his visit to Paris, Engels started cooperating very closely with Karl Marx. He also wrote contributions for the Franco-German Annals.

January 1847
Engels und Marx joined to the League of the Just.
This alliance was converted into a political representation of interests for the working class and has been renamed to Communist League.

August 1847
foundation of the German Workers‘ Society in Brussels.

November 1847
Engels was contracted by the Paris members of the Communist League to write the Principles of Communism.

February 1848
Engels und Marx worked out the Communist Manifesto. The Communist Manifesto concludes with the famous appeal Proletarians of all countries, unite!
and will serve as a basis for subsequent sociological and  communist party programmes.  

March 1848
beginning of the German Revolutions and foundation of the New Rhine Newspaper. Marx became the chief editor; Engels worked as a correspondent.

April/May 1849
Initiation of the Imperial Constitution Campaign. Engels joint for a time the uprising in Elberfeld, Baden and Pfalz. He then fled via Switzerland to London.

From 1850 to 1869
Engels worked as an authorised signatory at Ermen & Engels in Manchester, and as a partner from 1864 onwards. He supported Marx with his income.
Engels lived together with Mary Burns, an Irish worker.

Ab 1850
Engels became a military expert. He also studied languages and history focussing on Slavic Peoples.
He was fluent in twelve languages and was reasonably proficient in further twenty languages.

From 1851 to 1862
Engels wrote political articles for the New York Tribune. He also maintained regular contact trough letters as well as personal contact with Marx in London.

September 1867
the first volume of Karl Marx´ the Capital appeared. This volume was solely made possible through Engels financial support as well as his advisory support concerning questions on economy.  
He also did advertisement for a broader dissemination of his work.

October 1870
together with Lizzie Burns Engels moved to London nearby the apartment of Karl Marx. At the suggestion of Marx he was elected as member of the General Council of International Workers’ Association.
From 1871 Engels provided the secretary of Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Portugal and Spain.

1870/71
with his military expertise Engels wrote more than sixty articles about the Franco-German war for the Londoner daily writes Pall Mall Gazette.

From 1873 to 1882
Engels wrote Dialectic of the Nature, a Scripture about the basic principles of the dialectic materialism.

1875
Engels and Marx were critically engaged with the German social democracy in the Scripture Critique of Gotha Program.

From 1877 to 1878
Forward, the organ of the German Social Democratic Party, began to publish a series of articles by Engels who was assisted by Marx.
The title of the book Herr Eugen Dühring’s Revolution in Science is also known as Anti-Dühring. At the same time the contributions contemplated the development of their own theory.

1878
in September Engel‘s companion Lizzie Burns died, whom he had married one day before her death.

1880
in the contribution entitled the Development of Socialism from Utopia to Science based on Anti-Dühring, Engels defined the basic principles of historical materialism.

From 1883 to 1895
after the death of Karl Marx, Engels focused on preparing and publishing works of Karl Marx and finished inter alia the second volume of Capital.

1890
following abrogation of the Anti-Socialist Laws, Engels took a great influence on the development of the social democracy and the Erfurt Program of 1891.

1893
as Honorary Chairman Engels took part in the Zurich Socialist and Labour Congress of the Second International founded in 1889 in Paris.

1895
after nine years of work, Engels published the third volume of Capital.

5th August 1895
Engels died of throat cancer in London.

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