Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)

28th November 1820 
Friedrich Engels is born in Barmen as the son of the cotton manufacturer Friedrich Engels and his wife Elisabeth, née van Haar, as the oldest of nine children.

October 1834
After attending the city school in Barmen he changes to the academic high school in Elberfeld, which he leaves in September 1837 one year before the A-levels (Abitur) at the urging of his father, to be able to work in the family-owned enterprise as soon as possible.

July 1838 up to March 1841
Commercial apprenticeship at the wholesale trader Heinrich Leupold (Bremen). From 1839 on journalistic articles under the pseudonym Friedrich Oswald (among other things „Letters from the Wupper Valley“). Contacts to the circle "Young Germany (Junges Deutschland)".

September 1841 up to August 1842
Military service in Berlin as a one-year volunteer. He attends lectures at the Humboldt University and contacts the „Young Hegelians“.

16th November 1842
First encounter with Karl Marx in the editorial office of the newspaper „Rheinische Zeitung” in Cologne.

1842 up to 1844
Continuation of the commercial training in the cotton-spinning mill „Ermen & Engels“ in Manchester. Engels is confronted with the downsides of the „Manchester-type capitalism”. His impressions and political and sociological analyses he works up in his paper “The Condition of the Working Class in England”, published in 1845. 1844 he had explained initial considerations on the political economy in his paper „Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy“.

After a visit to Paris the intensive collaboration with Karl Marx begins. Engels writes articles for the „Franco-German Annals“.

January 1847
Engels und Marx join the „League of the Just“. Transformation into a political lobby of the workers and renaming into „Communist League“.

August 1847
Foundation of the „German Workers´ Association“ in Brussels.

November 1847
Engels writes on behalf of the Paris members of the „Communist League“ the „Principles of the Communism“.

February 1848
Engels and Marx develop the „Communist Manifesto“. It concludes with the famous appeal „Proletarians of all Countries, unite!“ It becomes the basis of the subsequent socialist and communist party programs.

March 1848
Beginning of the German Revolution and founding of the New Rhenish Newspaper. Marx becomes editor-in-chief and Engels correspondent.

April/May 1849
Reich´s Constitution campaign. Engels participates himself temporarily at the Elberfeld uprising, subsequently at the uprisings in Baden and the Palatinate. Flight via Switzerland to London.

1850 up to 1869
Authorized signatory at „Ermen & Engels“ in Manchester, from 1864 on as a partner. With his income he supports Marx. Engels lives together with Mary Burns, an Irish worker.

From 1850
Engels develops into a military expert, studies languages and history particularly of the Slavonic peoples. He has a good command of twelve languages actively and of twenty languages passively.

1851 up to 1862
Engels writes political articles for the „New York Tribune“. Close postal and personal contact with Marx in London.

September 1867
The first volume of Karl Marx´ „The Capital“ is published. This was only made possible with Engels´ financial and in matters of economy advisory support. Advertising for a wider dissemination of the work.

October 1870
Engels moves to London with Lizzie Burns close to the dwelling of Karl Marx. On the recommendation of Marx he is elected as a member of the General Council of the International Working Men´s Association and assumes from 1871 the secretariat for Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Portugal and Spain.

Engels writes for the London daily newspaper „Pall Mall Gazette“ with his military expertise about 60 articles on the Franco-Prussian War.

1873 up to 1882
Engels writes the work „Dialectics of Nature“, in which he outlines the main features of the dialectical materialism.

Critical examination of the German social democracy in the script „Critique of the Gotha Program“, that he had written together with Marx.

1877 up to 1878
In a series of articles in the „Forward“ Engels publishes with the participation of Marx „Mr. Eugen Dühring´s Upheaval of Science“ (the so-called „Anti-Dühring“). The articles at the same time reflect the development of his own theory.

In September Engels´ life partner Lizzie Burns dies, whom he still has married one day before her death.

In the article „The development of Socialism from Utopia to Science“, which builds on the „Anti-Dühring“, Engels defines the principles of the historical materialism.

1883 up to 1895
After the death of Karl Marx Engels dedicates himself the editing and publication of the works of Karl Marx and completes among other things the second volume of the „Capital“, which is published in 1885.

Following the lifting of the Anti-Socialist Laws Engels exerts influence on the development of social democracy and on the Erfurt Program of 1891.

Engels participates as Honorary Chairman at the Zurich Congress of the „Second (Socialist) International“, which had been founded in 1889 in Paris.

After nine years of work Engels publishes the third volume of the „Capital“.

5th August 1895
Friedrich Engels dies in London of throat cancer.